|Fats or Lipids are concentrated
source of energy. They include fats and oils and fat like substances that have a greasy
feeling and are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents like ether, benzene and
chloroform. The main constituents of lipids are fatty acids.
Fatty acids can be either
saturated or unsaturated.
Lipids can be classified as Simple lipids, Compound lipids and Derived lipids.
Simple lipids: are esters of fatty acids and glycerol (alcohol with three
carbons and three -OH groups). They are further classified as:
Monoglycerides: formed by esterification of fatty acid with one -OH group.
Diglycerides: formed by esterification with two -OH groups
Triglycerides: formed by esterification with three -OH groups. They are also
called as neutral fats. When the three fatty acids that are esterified are the same then
they are known as simple triglycerides and when at least two fatty acids are different
then they are called mixed triglycerides.
Compound lipids: are esters of fatty acids and glycerol and also other compounds
such as phosphates, carbohydrates and nitrogenous groups.
E.g. Phospholipids, Glycolipids and Lipoproteins.
Derived lipids: are obtained when compound and simple fats are hydrolysed and
they include fatty acids, glycerol and the fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K.
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